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Survey of China's educationThe Chinese government has placed priority on developing education, putting forward the strategy of revitalizing the country through science and education, making constant efforts to deepen the reform of educational system, and implementing the nine-year compulsory education. Governments at all levels are increasing investment in education and encourage people to run education through different channels and in different forms. "Education must meet the needs of the modernization drive, the world and the future", put forward by Deng Xiaoping, is the direction of China's educational development, and also the guiding principle to promote education reform and construction.
School education StructureSchool education of the People's Republic of China includes preschool, primary school, secondary school, high school, university and college, as well as graduate school education. The following is school age and fixed school terms at different levels; Kindergartens take children above three years old with a term of three school years; Primary schools and secondary schools take six school years and three school years, five school years and four school years, or just nine-year-through schooling. Most areas practice the six-year and three-year school-year terms. Therefore, primary school term is six or five years, and secondary school term is three or four years; school age for primary schools is six or seven years old, and 12or13for secondary schools ; School age for common high schools is15 or 16, with a term of three school years, Secondary professional schools are divided into two types: school age for the first type that takes junior middle school graduates is 15 or 16, usually with a term of four school years but with some exceptions of three-year schooling; school age for the second type that takes high school graduates is no more than 22, with a two-year term of schooling; secondary vocational schools usually provide three or four years of schooling; technical schools provide three years of schooling; school age for vocational high schools is15 or 16, with a term of two or three school Years, or even four years in some places; The schooling time of full-time universities is four or five school years (seven or eight years in some medical universities), schooling term of professional schools of higher education and vocational technical schools of higher education is two or three years; Graduate education is divided into Master degree and Ph.D degree. The school age for Master degree students than 40, with a tem of two or three school years; school age for Ph.D Students is no more than 45,usually with three years of schooling; The schooling term of various adult schools follows the practice of similar full-time schools. Adult secondary schools usually have the same schooling term as full-time schools of same nature; part-time or spare-time adult schools have one year more schooling term than full-time schools of same nature. The schooling time of undergraduates in adult schools of higher learning is four or five years, while education at professional schools of high education takes many forms, usually with a term of two to four school years. Law of the People's Republic of China on Compulsory Education stipulates that the state should implement the nine-year compulsory education system, namely, education at primary and secondary stages is compulsory. "Children of six years old, despite gender, nationality, and race, must go to school to receive free education. And areas where conditions are yet to be ready could postpone the school age to seven years old, which the state, society and families must guarantee."
Higher Education in ChinaThe institutions to implement higher education include universities, colleges, and professional schools of higher education. Schools of higher learning undertake teaching, scientific research, and social services. Chinese universities are divided into several categories: some directly under the Ministry of Education, others run by provincial, autonomous regional, and municipal governments, still others run by local center cities, as well as by communities. Chinese universities and independent colleges are equal institutions of higher learning. China has established a very strict enrollment examination system to guarantee the quality of enrolled university students. Only those students who have received high school graduation certificates cm go to college after passing the national entrance exam. China's full-time institutions of higher learning have two semesters in a school year (three semesters in some colleges). The first semester begins in early September, while the second in mid-February. One semester usually lasts about 2Oweeks,with students having fives days of study every week. Besides winter and summer vacations, students also have one day off on New Year's Day, and three days off respectively during the Spring Festival, on International Labor Day and National Day. There are no other holidays during the whole semester.
China's academic degree systemChina's academic degrees include bachelor', master' and doctor's degree. Disciplines include philosophy, economics, law (including politics, sociology, ethnology, etc.), mathematics, pedagogy (including sports science), literature (including linguistics ,arts science, library science), history, natural science, engineering science, medicine, management science, and military science. Bachelor's degree is conferred to undergraduates of universities and colleges who have finished all requirements in teaching plans, reporting goods academic records in curricular subject studies and graduation theses. Master's degree is conferred to postgraduates of universities, colleges, and research institutes who have passed all examinations of subject studies including graduation defence. Doctor's degree is conferred to Ph-D Students of universities, colleges, and research institutes who have passed all examinations of subject studies and graduation oral examinations.
Teaching and scientific re-search in China's universitiesTeaching in China's universities is strictly implemented according to teaching plans and teaching programs. Teaching in universities usually include classroom lecture, classroom discussion, experiment class, exercise doing, and guidance class. In line with classroom teaching, other teaching forms are also organized, such as on-the-spot teaching, visits, practice teaching, and social investigations, in a bid to reinforce the effect of classroom teaching, and improve students, ability of doing practical work and using the knowledge they have learned. Libraries and reference rooms are open to students both at the university or department level, creating good conditions for students, study and research. Universities and colleges are well equipped with modernized teaching facilities to make sure all teaching plans should be realized. Scientific research in China's universities and colleges is an important driving force to developing science and technology and fostering the economic construction. By September of 2000, China had 1,041universities and colleges, with graduate students totaling 301,200, and undergraduate students 5.5609 million. These universities and colleges have established 102state key laboratories and open research labs, as well as36 state engineering research centers. Universities and colleges play an important role in China's scientific research.
Student status management in China's universitiesChina's universities require students to register with schools in time. New students have to pass qualification reviews before officially obtaining the status or identity as a student. Students are checked both on study attendance and academic records in China's universities, not allowed to cut classes without reason and have to take examinations required in teaching plans. Students are not allowed to move to the higher grade before finishing subject studies and necessary qualifications required in the school year. Students of the universities where the credit system is adopted can get the credit of a subject after passing the exam. Students will have to repeat the year's, work, stay down or be ordered to quit school, if he or she fails in the exams. Students of good behavior and study will be rewarded and commended in China's universities. Students who violate school disciplines and regulations will face discipline punishment.
Campus culture in China's universitiesIn view of the direct influence of campus culture upon students, development and education, Chinese universities attach great importance to cultivating healthy campus culture featuring their own characteristics, in a bid to build up a good school spirit. Chinese universities often organize social and massive activities to improve the building up of campus culture. The activities mainly include scientific experiments, academe exchanges, art peIfom1ances, athletic competitions, and public we1fare activities. International students in China are welcome to all these activities. In addition, universities organize special art performances, athletic competitions, performances in Chinese, and sightseeing for international students. By taking in part such activities, International students will be able to better understand the Chinese culture, and increase exchanges with Chinese teachers and students.
Living facilities in Chinese universitiesChinese universities have student dormitories and dining halls, with most students being able to have board and lodging within the campus-To provide convenience for international students, Chinese universities usually build dormitories and dining halls for them within the campus.